For a large application, configuration files become a necessity. They help flexible code be used in multiple instances across multiple modules. But they are, for the most part, only data structures, which can be a problem if the configured object is expecting another configured object.
Moose is great! At its very basic, it simplifies the boilerplate required to create Perl objects immensely, providing attributes with type constraints, method modifiers for semantic enhancement, and role-based class composition for better code re-use.
Moose is built on top of Class::MOP. MOP stands for Meta-Object Protocol. A meta-object is an object that describes an object. So, each attribute and method in your class has a corresponding entry in the meta-object describing it. The meta-object is where you can find out what type constraints are on an attribute, or what methods a class has available.
Since the meta-object is a Plain Old Perl Object, we can call methods on it at runtime. Using those meta-object methods to add an attribute would modify our object, adding that attribute to the object. Using Class::MOP, we can compose classes at runtime!